Vomiting in a 22-day-old firstborn male
© Springer-Verlag London Ltd 2010
Received: 18 February 2010
Accepted: 7 April 2010
Published: 13 July 2010
Pyloric stenosis is an important cause of gastric outlet obstruction and vomiting in infants. Peak incidence occurs between 2 and 5 weeks of age with an incidence of 1–8 per 1,000 live births. Male infants are predominantly affected 4:1 over female infants . There is a familial component, with sons of affected fathers carrying a 5% risk of pyloric stenosis .
The cardinal feature of this disorder is projectile, nonbilious vomiting that occurs anywhere from the end of feeding up to 30 min after. Afterwards the infant exhibits a desire to feed more. Persistent emesis results in hypokalemic hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis with dehydration. Palpation of an olive-shaped, muscular, mobile, and nontender mass in the left upper quadrant is pathognomonic of this condition. During feeding, gastric peristaltic waves can sometimes be observed from left to right upper abdominal quadrants.
Radiographic signs of pyloric stenosis include gastric distension with air, a maximal gastric diameter of 7 cm or greater, and thick walled gastric antrum . Abdominal US confirms the diagnosis by illustrating the increased length and thickness of the pyloric muscle.
Before surgical treatment, correction of dehydration and serum electrolytes is necessary. Definitive therapy is pyloromyotomy with an excellent outcome .
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