Tetanus antibody protection among HIV-infected US-born patients and immigrants
© Springer-Verlag London Ltd 2008
Published: 18 June 2008
Public health initiatives to immunize children and adults have effectively reduced the number of tetanus cases in the USA. However, in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), immigrants from Mexico had a 67% nonprotective anti-tetanus antibody (ATA) level. Less work has been conducted among other vulnerable populations such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. The objective of this study was to measure ATA levels among the HIV immigrant population compared with US-born HIV-infected patients.
A convenience sample of 158 HIV-infected individuals was recruited to determine the levels of ATA. A nonprotective level of ATA was defined as below 0.15 IU/ml.
Among the HIV-infected patients, 72% (114/158) were born in the USA. A total of 17% (27/158) lacked protective levels of ATA. A total of 6.1% (7/114) of those born in the USA lacked protection, compared to 45% (20/44) born outside the USA (p < 0.0001).
The results illustrate that the country of birth is an important predictor of ATA protection, even among HIV-infected patients.
KeywordsTetanus immunization HIV-infected patients Tetanus antibody protection
Tetanus is characterized by generalized rigidity and spasm of skeletal muscles that often progresses to respiratory failure and death. The clinical manifestations of tetanus are caused by the exotoxins made by Clostridium tetani, a gram-positive, anaerobic rod, which is found in soil, animal intestines and faeces . The causative agent enters the human body through a wound where the toxins are produced and spreads via blood and lymphatics in order to wreak havoc on neurotransmitter release in the central nervous system.
Newly reported cases of tetanus-related deaths have dropped steadily since the introduction of tetanus toxoid into routine childhood immunization in the late 1940s [1, 2]. The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends that the first four doses of diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccine in childhood be administered at ages 2, 4, 6 and 15–18 months. The fifth dose is given at age 4–6 years with a subsequent tetanus and diphtheria toxoid (Td) booster given at age 11–12 years and then every 10 years thereafter [1, 3]. Since 2005, an adult tetanus, diphtheria and pertussis vaccine has been available for adult patients under the age of 65 .
During the period of 1998–2000, an average of 43 tetanus cases was reported annually in the USA . It has been well documented that the elderly are less likely to have adequate tetanus titres [2, 5–7]. Other patient populations, such as immigrants to the USA (foreign born), are also less likely to have protection against tetanus. In one study, 84% of adult immigrants over the age of 50 years did not have protective titres to tetanus compared to 21% of US-born individuals in the same age group . In another study, 18% of immigrants lacked seroprotection despite a history of adequate immunization .
Another population that may be vulnerable to tetanus are individuals infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) [10, 11]. Previous serosurveys have suggested that HIV-infected patients are less likely to have adequate anti-tetanus antibodies (ATA). The progressive decline of CD4 levels in HIV-infected individuals could potentially lead to lost immunity to tetanus [10–12]. We speculate that immigrant status within the HIV patient population may confer an additional negative impact on tetanus immunity.
To determine whether the loss of immunity among HIV patients residing in the USA is a function of country of birth, this study quantifies ATA levels among HIV-infected persons born in the USA compared to those born in foreign countries and immigrated to the USA.
A convenience sample of HIV adult patients was recruited from an HIV outpatient centre based at a university teaching hospital from October 2006 through October 2007. To be eligible, individuals needed to be infected with HIV, be 18 years of age or older and agree to participate. A structured interview was conducted requesting age, gender, country of birth, military service, history of intravenous drug use, HIV infection and previous tetanus immunization. Serum samples were obtained and stored at −30°C for batch testing. Levels of ATA were measured using an antigen-specific IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit (Bindazyme, The Binding Site, Inc., San Diego, CA, USA). A nonprotective level of ATA was defined as below 0.15 IU/ml, as per the manufacturer’s recommendations. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, Student’s t-test and chi-squared analysis, and a p value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The study was approved by the Human Subjects Review Committee at the North Shore-Long Island Jewish Health System and written informed consent was obtained from each patient.
There were 158 HIV-infected subjects enrolled in the study. The mean age was 46 years (SD: 10.2, range: 22–71), 64% (101/158) were male and 72% (114/158) were born in the USA. A total of 17% (27/158) lacked protective levels of ATA. In a univariate analysis, neither age nor gender predicted ATA protection. However, the country of birth was associated with ATA protective levels. A total of 6.1% (7/114) of those born in the USA lacked protection, compared to 45% (20/44) born outside the USA (p < 0.0001).
Since lower tetanus immunity has been reported with age greater than 50 years [2, 5–7, 13] we evaluated whether age differences in relation to country of birth accounted for the observed differences in protection. The mean age of those born in the USA was similar to those born outside the USA (47.5 years vs 45.1 years, p = 0.154). Further, the number of individuals over 50 years born in the USA (40/114, 35%) was similar to the number over 50 years and born outside the USA (15/44, 34%, p = 0.906).
Lack of tetanus protection by place of birth and age
60 & up
Immune status by region of birth
Place of birth
Non-immune to tetanus, n (%)
Central America, South America, Mexico
Europe, Middle East
Upon arrival to the USA, immigrants are required to show proof of tetanus immunization or receive the appropriate vaccinations to confer immunity. Despite this mandate, this study shows that the foreign-born individuals infected with HIV often do not have protective titres to tetanus compared to US/Puerto Rican-born HIV-infected individuals. The results illustrate that the country of birth is an important predictor of ATA protection, even among HIV-infected patients. These results are consistent with seroprevalence studies of immigrant groups in the general USA population, where 67% of Mexican Americans born outside the USA lack protection , and 86% of Korean Americans born outside the USA lack protection .
Much has been written in the literature regarding declining tetanus immunity in older patients with one study using an age cut-off of 50 years [2, 5–8, 13]. The ACIP guidelines have recommended that all patients 50 years and older be evaluated for completeness to tetanus and other immunization recommendations . In our study, there were no differences in age between the USA and non-US-born subjects, so age did not explain these patterns of immunity. We speculate that either inadequate immunization practices in the countries of origin or poor individual compliance with decennial tetanus boosters may contribute to these differences. If so, vaccination history for immigrants at the time of US entry would require more rigorous scrutiny.
Among our study limitations are the over-sampling of men and testing a population from one region in New York, USA. While 66% of HIV-infected individuals enrolled in the study were men, it reflects the current epidemiology of the HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic where the majority of cases occur among males . Other limitations include patients not being asked about their primary medical care, when they immigrated to the USA or the amount of years spent living in this country.
In summary, for US-born individuals followed at an HIV clinic, having HIV does not appear to influence tetanus immune status. In our population of HIV-infected adults, 97% of US-born individuals had protective antibodies to tetanus (mean age 45), which is broadly similar to a 90% seroprevalence found in the general USA population (mean age 37) . It is still unclear from this study whether a low level of ATA among foreign-born patients infected with HIV is due to being non-immunized, inadequately immunized or having lost immunity and further study is needed to address this. It is possible that those born in the USA may receive better primary and secondary immunization, better care for their HIV or both. Pending further study, clinicians who care for HIV patients born outside the USA should be aware they are less likely to have tetanus protection. For the outpatient provider this means taking a careful history for previous primary or secondary immunization, or checking ATA titres. For the emergency physician this means ensuring adequate immunization when treating routine wounds or considering providing tetanus immunoglobulin (TIG) for high-risk populations with substantial wounds.
The views expressed in this paper are those of the author(s) and not those of the editors, editorial board or publisher.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2007) Epidemiology and prevention of vaccine-preventable diseases, 10th edn. Atkinson W, Hamborsky J, McIntyre L, Wolfe S (eds). Public Health Foundation, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
- Pascual FB, McGinley EL, Zanardi LR, Cortese MM, Murphy TV (2003) Tetanus surveillance—United States, 1998—2000. MMWR Surveill Summ 52(3):1–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2003) Recommended childhood immunization schedule—United States, 2003. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 52:Q1–Q4Google Scholar
- Kretsinger K, Broder KR, Cortese MM, Joyce MP, Ortega-Sanchez I, Lee GM, Tiwari T, Cohn AC, Slade BA, Iskander JK, Mijalski CM, Brown KH, Murphy TV; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices; Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (2006) Preventing tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis among adults: use of tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid and acellular pertussis vaccine recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) and recommendation of ACIP, supported by the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC), for use of Tdap among health-care personnel. MMWR Recomm Rep 55(RR-17):1–37Google Scholar
- Gergen PJ, McQuillan GM, Kiely M et al (1995) A population-based serologic survey of immunity to tetanus in the United States. N Engl J Med 332:761–766PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Alagappan K, Rennie W, Kwaitkowski T et al (1996) Seroprevalence of tetanus antibodies among adults older than 65 years. Ann Emerg Med 28:18–21PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Talan D, Moran G, Abrahamian FA et al (2004) Tetanus immunity and physician compliance with tetanus prophylaxis practices among emergency department patients presenting with wounds. Ann Emerg Med 43(3):305–314PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Alagappan K, Donohue B, Gebof S et al (2004) Seroprevalence for tetanus antibodies among immigrants over age 50: comparison to an age matched US born population. Ann Emerg Med 44:S126View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Alagappan K, Park R, Kuo T et al (2004) Evaluation for tetanus antibodies in Korean Americans living in the New York area: a pilot study. National General Clinical Research Meeting, Chicago, IL, 16 April 2004. J Investig Med 52(2)Google Scholar
- Alagappan K, Sheth H, Weiss S et al (2002) Seroprevalence of tetanus antibody among HIV infected patients. Poster presentation American College of Emergency Physicians Annual Meeting, Seattle, WA, 6 October, 2002. Ann Emerg Med 40(4.96):S29Google Scholar
- Alagappan K, Donohue B, Fernandes C et al (2004) Seroprevalence of tetanus antibody titers among HIV infected patients. National General Clinical Research Meeting, Chicago, IL, 17 April 2004. J Investig Med 52(2)Google Scholar
- Rousseau MC, Moreau J, Delmont J (1999) Vaccination and HIV: a review of the literature. Vaccine 18:825–831PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Weiss BP, Strassburg MA, Feeley JC (1983) Tetanus and diphtheria immunity in an elderly population in Los Angeles County. Am J Public Health 73(7):802–804PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- National Center for Health Statistics (1994) Plan and operation of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988–94. Series 1: programs and collection procedures. Vital Health Stat 1 32:1-407Google Scholar
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (1995) Notice to readers assessing adult vaccination status at age 50 years. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 44(29):561–563Google Scholar
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2006) Epidemiology of HIV/AIDS—United States, 1981–2005. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 55(21):589–592Google Scholar